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(A - E )
(F - L )
(M - S )
(T - Z )
(A - E) :

Author system

Software to develop education software and multimedia teaching resources.

CBT (Computer-Based Training)

Training entirely designed around a method which integrates ICT (information and communication technology). If ICT is only partially integrated, the preferred term is CAT (Computer-Assisted Training).

Course creator

Role which can manager course content preparation (integration, assembly and/or design of multimedia material).


Training course material to use and which addresses a given subject (and comprises lessons).

E-learning (or Relearning) and “E.formation”

The concept of E-learning is not yet covered by a standard definition with international recognition.


There are, however, two generally accepted but different meanings; one is more restrictive and used more in France, whilst the other applies to North America.


The ‘restrictive’ approach confines the scope of e-learning to training systems involving extensive use of the company’s intranet or internet (the ‘instrumental’ approach).


E.formation = a training method that uses the internet or intranet as vectors to convey training courses.


Another definition upheld by Americans is that of e-learning as a consistent range of educational technologies and strategies (the ‘functional’ approach).

E.formation = learning content or experiments based on new technology. E-learning can include a broad range of strategies and technology


ranging from CD-ROM’s to computer-assisted teaching and including training[1] delivered by satellite and by virtual training networks.


In all cases, e-learning is the result of the combination of interactive content and multimedia, distribution materials (PC or Mac, intranets, extranets, internet), a range of software tools to manage training on-line and tools to devise interactive training courses.

ERP Enterprise Resource Planning

By definition, ERP software (such as SAP) are tools designed to help organisations use their resources more efficiently. They stem from Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and then Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRPII) software.


A profession which remains to be developed to a large degree (different accepted meanings are possible and can be combined):


- a manager: section leader who administers and manages the e-training project in its entirety whilst managing a training team of presence-based facilitators as well as remote training trainers


- a training facilitator, a guide offering personal support to learners


- a technician who has teaching engineering responsibility (designer of on-line content, who manages equally the on-line resources and the tools to distribute training)


- most of the time, an e-tutor is also a virtual class instructor; he can also help the learner in the event of problems in using the tools.

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(F - L) :


Document that lists questions frequently asked by the users in a discussion group.

FOAD (Formation Ouverte et A Distance – Open and Distance Learning)

An important and controversial French term whose accepted meaning (developed in particular by the CNED, the Centre National d’Enseignement à Distance) differs completely from the English equivalent.


It is preferable to use the summary definition developed by UNESCO which simply considers this type of training as offering unrestricted access to teaching resources made available to the learner, i.e., no admission conditions, training curriculum and rhythm chosen by the learner according to availability, regulated by a contract between the learner and the institution giving this type of training.


A discussion forum (newsgroup) is the means of communication for several people asynchronous. Forums can be private or public and can be self regulated or moderated.


Abbreviation of ‘Information and Communication Technology’.

Individual curriculum

A variant on the standard curriculum which is specific to a category of students or a given student.

Institutional administrator (“super administrator”)

Role which may manage the platform in the environment of the establishment and between operators.


Dialogue between an information system user and the machine via the screen.


This term is used rightly or wrongly in preference to ‘pupil, ‘intern’ or ‘student’ which all have a school connotation and are not very suitable to a corporate environment. Using this noun implies the idea that a ‘learner’ has an active role to play in the training course and highlights the learning situation as opposed to a teaching program.


In simpler terms, a ‘learner’ is anyone following an on-line training course.


Course component consisting of material divided into grains or bricks.

LSP Learning Service Provider

Learning Service Provider, like an Internet Service Provider.

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(M - S) :


A computer is on line when it is connected to other computers either via the company’s internal network or via the Internet. The link can be temporary or continuous.


A single entry point to access a range of services. Often portals can organise communities of interest.


This type of site is used as the gateway to the internet for a community of learners listed in an e-learning activity.

Presence-based training

AKA ‘classroom training’: this is the traditional form of training in a physical classroom with a predominately lecture type approach (teaching face-to-face between trainers and trainees in the same area which offers ‘top-down’ training.


Two accepted meanings. The first is broadly used to describe a learning process in which the learner is fairly independent to carry out the training program assigned to him or her, generally with assistance from tutors.

Standard curriculum

For a given session or course, the list of themes and objectives to be reached, a plan or summary of teaching content generally organised in chronological sequence, the list of activities by step and of resources and tools available. Should not be mistaken for a cursus (set of learnings to follow to be awarded a diploma) or set of courses.


The terms ‘norms’ (de jure or de facto), ‘standards’ and ‘specifications’ and used to describe technological standards. See discussion at the end of the glossary. See discussion at the end of the glossary.


Role with functions for management and learning work organisation, self-assessment and relations with the trainer, administration and with other students. This term and the underlying connotations are changing rapidly in the corporate world towards a rather different notion, that of the ‘learner’.

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(T - Z) :

Teaching grain

A teaching curriculum is divided into various sections such as modules, lessons, topics, themes, domains, etc. Teaching grains are the generic name for the smallest teaching unit (also known as the granule or brick).

Teaching Resource Centre

Place where users (tutors, learners) can find most of the resources they need (books, dictionaries, educational software, software, audio tapes, DVD’s, CD-ROM’s, Internet access, etc.).

Teaching resources

All resources used to support learning activities, knowledge contribution, training, case studies and tests. This can include ‘electronic books’ as well as simulation programs, spreadsheet tables and specific tools for the planned learning.


Work done by two or more people at a distance using network software ensuring interaction between remote people to jointly produce a single task or result. These tools offer the possibility involving several authors in a single document.


Problem solving between peers is an example of remote teamwork.

Technical administrator

Role which may manage the installation and ensure technical maintenance for everything to do with the platform and the technical relation with platform clients.


Abbreviation of ‘Teaching Information and Communication Technology’.


The ability to keep a record of specific information, for example to assess the quality of a service. Remote training systems may have a particular interest in keeping records of all learning activities and tracking along with negotiations in training plans, test results, resource usage and processing instances of non-compliance, etc.


Role involving management of a group of learners, a learning curriculum, assessments (relations with students, personalisation).

Training curriculum

Describes the monitoring of behaviour and results of the learners and includes tracking of modules learnt, time spent, the number of times the learner has called on a tutor and test results. In some cases, it also makes it possible to personalise course implementation to tailor the course to progress made by the learner.

Tutored self-training

Self-training is termed ‘tutored’ whenever a human role is included in the training method.

Virtual campus

Any website intended for a community of learners and providing them with the teaching resources and communication functionality along with the corresponding collaborative assistance. Some sites are developed around the visual metaphor of a physical campus with classrooms, library and cafeteria, etc.

Virtual Class

Simulated class. Learners can work together although physically in other locations. Classes can be synchronous or asynchronous. It is also termed a ‘distributed’ class.

Virtual community

All the people connected by computer in cyberspace who meet and exchange through an IT network such as the Internet and who share a common interest.

Virtual university

Concept similar to that of the ‘virtual campus’, but more generic. Curiously enough, it is more used in a corporate context than by university institutions themselves. The e-learning solution includes content, management tools and tools to design courses which can be hosted on an intranet or internet server which is dedicated to a given company. The virtual university acts as an interface between the learner and the training offer. It is a virtual area where students, trainers and experts work together.


The webmaster is the person who supervises, updates and coordinates an Internet site.

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